The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine
an-Nafis opines that right and left ventricles of heart, as well as the
lesser circulation of blood
Bacon, convex lens spectacles
for treating long-sightedness
implements first quarantine against the Black
of Cusa invents concave
spectacles to treat myopia
- Leonardo da Vinci describes capillary
Nicolas Copernicus argues that the earth orbits the sun
1536 - Paracelsus, The Great Surgery
by trade, rejects occultism and pioneers the use of chemicals and minerals in
Vesalius, De Fabrica
Corporis Humani which corrects Greek medical errors and revolutionizes
Copernicus, De Revolutionibus Orbium
Caoelestium (The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)
- Girolamo Fracastoro proposes that epidemic
diseases are caused by transferable seedlike entities
Georgius Agricola's De re Metallica
1569 - Gerardus Mercater, Mercator projection world map.
Serveto, the lesser circulation of blood through the lungs
Lusitano describes venous valves in the Ázigos vein and their
function for the first time
De re metallica -foundational mining text
Colombo describes the lesser circulation of blood through the
lungs in detail
1572 - Tycho
Brahe observes a supernova
Galilei notices the timekeeping property of the pendulum
- Galileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that
different weights fall with the same acceleration
1590 - Zacharias Janssen, compound microscope.
1596 - Johannes Kepler, Mysterium cosmographicum.
new breakthroughs in stellar cartography
1609-13 - Galileo Galilei constructs his telescope and discovers Jupiter's
four largest moons, as well as sun spots.
1614 - John Napier, first logarithmic table
1609-19 - Kepler, first three laws of planetary motion
- William Harvey, An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and
Blood in Animals . Within 60 years, various individuals observe red
blood cells, protozoa, spermatozoa, and bacteria.
1632-33 - Galilei upholds Copernicean heliocentric model and is forced by
the Roman Inquisition in
1635 - Founding of Academie Francaise.
- Galileo Galilei publishes Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
1644 - Evangelista Torricelli, barometer
1655 - Christiaan Huygens, new method of telescope lenses; he discovers
one moon of Saturn and the rings of Saturn.
1659 - Robert Boyle develops an air pump for creating vacuums, confirms
Galilei's view that bodies fall in a vacuum at the same rate, regardless
of weight; discovers that sound does not travel in a vacuum.
1663 - Charter granted for Royal Society of England
1662 - Boyle develops Boyle's Law
, relating the pressure and volume
of an ideal gas.
Steno puts forward his theory that sedimentary strata had been
deposited in former seas, and that fossils were organic in origin
1669 - Hennig Brand discovers phosphorus, the first new element found
since ancient times.
1674 - Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek discovers one-celled bacteria in marsh
water using his microscope.
1675 - Leibniz develops differential calculus.
1678 - Christiaan Huygens, the polarization of light.
Halley publishes a catalog of 341 southern stars, the first
systematic southern sky survey
1687 - Newton, Principia Mathematica
1688 - Newton constructs the first reflecting telescope.
1701 - Edmund
Halley suggests using the salinity and evaporation of the
to determine the age of the Earth
Pylarini gives the first smallpox
Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica
provides important designations for star locations.
- James Stirling, The
providing important advances in infinite series theory and calculus.
- Leonhard Euler solves the Basel problem, relating an infinite series to
- Leonhard Euler solves the problem of the Seven bridges of Königsberg, in effect
creating graph theory
- Daniel Bernoulli examines fluid flow in Hydrodynamica
- Sir Christopher Packe, geological map of south-east England
- Jean-Étienne Guettard, first mineralogical
map of France
Lind discovers that citrus
- Pierre Louis Maupertuis applies minimum
principles to mechanics
Michell suggests earthquakes are caused by one layer of rocks
rubbing against another
Bayes proves Bayes' theorem
, key element in probability
- Joseph Louis Lagrange, the divergence theorem
Aymand, first successful appendectomy
- Leonhard Euler examines the partial differential equation for the
vibration of a circular drum and finds one of the Bessel
Messier, first list of nebulae
- Joseph Priestley, plants convert carbon
dioxide into oxygen.
Keir, crystallisation of molten lava
Smeaton, experiments relating power, work,
energy, and supporting the conservation of energy.
- James Hutton Theory of the Earth - old earth theory put forth
- Joseph Louis Lagrange, Mécanique
Analytique (equations of motion)
- Antoine Lavoisier, the law of conservation of mass
Jenner develops a smallpox vaccination method
- Adrien-Marie Legendre conjectures the prime number theorem
Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population.
- Carl Friedrich Gauss proves fundamental theorem of algebra
(every polynomial equation has a solution among the complex numbers)