c. 1010
 Avicenna,
The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine
1242
 Ibn
anNafis opines that right and left ventricles of heart, as well as the
lesser circulation of blood
1249
 Roger
Bacon, convex lens spectacles
for treating longsightedness
1403
 Venice
implements first quarantine against the Black
Death
1451
 Nicholas
of Cusa invents concave
lens
spectacles to treat myopia
1490
 Leonardo da Vinci describes capillary
action
1514 
Nicolas Copernicus argues that the earth orbits the sun
1536  Paracelsus, The Great Surgery
Book, an
alchemist
by trade, rejects occultism and pioneers the use of chemicals and minerals in
medicine
1543
 Andreas
Vesalius, De Fabrica
Corporis Humani which corrects Greek medical errors and revolutionizes
medicine
1543 
Copernicus, De Revolutionibus Orbium
Caoelestium (The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)
1546
 Girolamo Fracastoro proposes that epidemic
diseases are caused by transferable seedlike entities
1556 
Georgius Agricola's De re Metallica
1569  Gerardus Mercater, Mercator projection world map.
1553
 Miguel
Serveto, the lesser circulation of blood through the lungs
1556
 Amato
Lusitano describes venous valves in the Ázigos vein and their
function for the first time
1556
 Agricola,
De re metallica foundational mining text
1559
 Realdo
Colombo describes the lesser circulation of blood through the
lungs in detail
1572  Tycho
Brahe observes a supernova
1581
 Galileo
Galilei notices the timekeeping property of the pendulum
1589
 Galileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that
different weights fall with the same acceleration
1590  Zacharias Janssen, compound microscope.
1596  Johannes Kepler, Mysterium cosmographicum.
1603
 Johann
Bayer's Uranometria,
new breakthroughs in stellar cartography
160913  Galileo Galilei constructs his telescope and discovers Jupiter's
four largest moons, as well as sun spots.
1614  John Napier, first logarithmic table
160919  Kepler, first three laws of planetary motion
1628
 William Harvey, An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and
Blood in Animals . Within 60 years, various individuals observe red
blood cells, protozoa, spermatozoa, and bacteria.
163233  Galilei upholds Copernicean heliocentric model and is forced by
the Roman Inquisition in
Rome
to recant.
1635  Founding of Academie Francaise.
1638
 Galileo Galilei publishes Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
1644  Evangelista Torricelli, barometer
1655  Christiaan Huygens, new method of telescope lenses; he discovers
one moon of Saturn and the rings of Saturn.
1659  Robert Boyle develops an air pump for creating vacuums, confirms
Galilei's view that bodies fall in a vacuum at the same rate, regardless
of weight; discovers that sound does not travel in a vacuum.
1663  Charter granted for Royal Society of England
1662  Boyle develops Boyle's Law, relating the pressure and volume
of an ideal gas.
1669
 Nicolas
Steno puts forward his theory that sedimentary strata had been
deposited in former seas, and that fossils were organic in origin
1669  Hennig Brand discovers phosphorus, the first new element found
since ancient times.
1674  Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek discovers onecelled bacteria in marsh
water using his microscope.
1675  Leibniz develops differential calculus.
1678  Christiaan Huygens, the polarization of light.
1678
 Edmund
Halley publishes a catalog of 341 southern stars, the first
systematic southern sky survey
1687  Newton, Principia Mathematica
1688  Newton constructs the first reflecting telescope.
1701  Edmund
Halley suggests using the salinity and evaporation of the
Mediterranean
to determine the age of the Earth
1701
 Giacomo
Pylarini gives the first smallpox
inoculations
1704
 Newton
publishes Optiks.
1726
 John
Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica
provides important designations for star locations.
1730
 James Stirling, The
Differential Method
providing important advances in infinite series theory and calculus.
1735
 Leonhard Euler solves the Basel problem, relating an infinite series to
π
1736
 Leonhard Euler solves the problem of the Seven bridges of Königsberg, in effect
creating graph theory
1738
 Daniel Bernoulli examines fluid flow in Hydrodynamica
1743
 Sir Christopher Packe, geological map of southeast England
1746
 JeanÉtienne Guettard, first mineralogical
map of France
1747
 James
Lind discovers that citrus
fruits
prevent scurvy
1747
 Pierre Louis Maupertuis applies minimum
principles to mechanics
1760
 John
Michell suggests earthquakes are caused by one layer of rocks
rubbing against another
1761
 Thomas
Bayes proves Bayes' theorem, key element in probability
theory
1762
 Joseph Louis Lagrange, the divergence theorem
1763
 Claudius
Aymand, first successful appendectomy
1764
 Leonhard Euler examines the partial differential equation for the
vibration of a circular drum and finds one of the Bessel
function solutions
1771
 Charles
Messier, first list of nebulae
1771
 Joseph Priestley, plants convert carbon
dioxide into oxygen.
1776
 James
Keir, crystallisation of molten lava
1776
 John
Smeaton, experiments relating power, work,
momentum
and kinetic
energy, and supporting the conservation of energy.
1785
 James Hutton Theory of the Earth  old earth theory put forth
1788
 Joseph Louis Lagrange, Mécanique
Analytique (equations of motion)
1789
 Antoine Lavoisier, the law of conservation of mass
1796
 Edward
Jenner develops a smallpox vaccination method
1796
 AdrienMarie Legendre conjectures the prime number theorem
1798
 Thomas
Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population.
1799
 Carl Friedrich Gauss proves fundamental theorem of algebra
(every polynomial equation has a solution among the complex numbers)
